Java Code Review Checklist

Follow the checklist with the top 10 steps for Java code review in order to deliver quality code that enables a great customer experience.

Digital Quality
6 min
Digital Quality
Java Code Review Checklist

Code reviews, or peer reviews, can sometimes feel like an unnecessary chore, especially when there is a backlog of features to work on, leaving very little time for these reviews. However, manual or automated reviews are essential to delivering quality code that provides a great customer experience.

This guide covers some of the most common items to check in a Java code review to ensure your code is reliable and easy to read, maintain and scale.

1. Ensure the code follows standard naming conventions

Meaningful naming conventions help ensure the readability and maintainability of the application.

As such, ensure variable, method, and class names convey the subject:


Could be clarified to:


Use all lower cases for package names and use reversed Internet domain naming conventions:


Class names should start with Capitals:

Employee, Student,

Variable and method names should use CamelCase:

employeeList, studentName, displayEmployees()

2. Make sure it handles constants efficiently

Constants help improve memory as they are cached by the JVM. For values that are reused across multiple places, create a constant file that holds static values.

Favor database-driven values over dynamic values. Also, use ENUMs to group constants.

3. Check for proper clean Up

It is common during development to use procedures that help with your coding and debugging (hard coded variables, for example). It is good practice to remove these items and others such as:

  • Console print statements
  • Unnecessary comments
  • Use @deprecated on method/variable names that aren’t meant for future use

4. Handle strings appropriately

If you need to perform a lot of operations on a String, use StringBuilder or StringBuffer.

Strings are immutable, whereas StringBuilder and StringBuffer are mutable and can be changed. Additionally, a new String object is created for every concatenation operation.

Rather than creating multiple items, using a mutable object is preferred.

5. Optimize to use switch-case over multiple If-Else statements

Rather than using multiple if-else conditions, use the cleaner and more readable switch-case.

Doing so makes the logic cleaner and optimizes the app's performance.

switch(expression) {

 case x:

// code block


case y:

  // code block



   // code block


6. Ensure the code follows appropriate error handling procedures

The NullPointerException is one of the most common and frustrating exceptions.

However, they can be avoided by performing a null check on a variable before operating on it.

The best practice is to use checked exceptions for recoverable operations and use runtime exceptions for programming errors.

Another area to evaluate during a Java code review is to ensure all exceptions are wrapped in custom exceptions.

In this way, the stack trace is preserved, making it easier to debug when things go wrong.

Also, it should declare specific checked exceptions that the method throws rather than generic ones. Doing so doesn’t give you the option to handle and debug the issue appropriately.

Avoid this:

public void hello() throws Exception { //Incorrect way


Try this instead:

public void hello() throws SpecificException1, SpecificException2 { //Correct way


Use the try-catch block for exception handling with appropriate actions taken in the catch block.

Also, use a finally block to release resources, such as database connections, in the finally block. This allows you to close the resource gracefully.

7. Avoid unnecessary comments in code?

Comments should not be used to explain code. If the logic is not intuitive, it should be rewritten. Use comments to answer a question that the code can’t.

Another way to state it is that the comment should explain the “why” versus “what” it does.

8. Validate that the code follows separation of concerns

Ensure there is no duplication. Each class or method should be small and focus on one thing.

For example: - Data access logic - Domain Logic - Business Logic - Validating Input Fields

9. Does the code rely on frameworks rather than custom logic when possible?

When time is of the essence, reinventing the wheel is time wasted. There are plenty of proven frameworks and libraries available for the most common use cases you may need.

Examples include Apache Commons libraries, Spring libraries, and XML/JSON libraries.

10. Make sure variables don’t cause memory leaks

Creating a bunch of unnecessary variables can overwhelm the heap and lead to memory leaks and cause performance problems. This occurs when an object is present in the heap but is no longer used, and the garbage collection cannot remove it from memory.


Avoid This

boolean removed = myItems.remove(item); return removed;

Try This Instead

return myItems.remove(item);

Performing regular Java code reviews can help identify issues before the application makes it to production.

The more thorough you are about the process, the less chance you’ll miss anything that could be added to your backlog.

How Adservio can help

We hope this blog post provides some valuable insight into what to check for in your review process. If your business needs assistance with defining a Java code review process, our team can help.

Reach out to our team of professionals and learn how we can help you accomplish your goals for quality application delivery.

Published on
November 16, 2021

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